- Acid / Alkali, Burns
- Postoperative complications or infections
- Congenital disorders
Signs & Symptoms
- Watery eyes mucous / purulent discharge from eye
- Blurred vision
- Redness in the eyes
- Pain in the eyes
- Prevent eye injuries. Keep sharp objects away from the reach of children
- Take particular care in case of professions like Carpentry, Farmers during harvest, blacksmiths etc
- Provide supplementary dose of Vitamin ‘A’ solution to all children below 6 years of age. Educate mothers on nutrition of children
Avoid self-medication. Consult eye specialist in case of any signs and symptoms
Typical Corneal Problems
This inflammation sometimes occurs after viruses, bacteria, or fungi get into the cornea. They can get in after an injury and cause infection, inflammation, and ulcers. If your contact lenses cause an eye injury, that, too, can lead to keratitis. Treatment usually includes antibiotic or antifungal eyedrops. Some people need antiviral drugs and steroid eyedrops.
This disease thins the cornea and changes its shape. The cornea steepens, and becomes a cone shape in the bottom portion. It usually starts blurring vision during teenage years and worsens during early adulthood. Changes to the cornea’s curvature can create mild to severe distortion, called astigmatism, and usually nearsightedness. The disease can also cause swelling, scars on your cornea, and vision loss. Night vision could get so bad that it could affect driving after dark.
There are more than 20 of these diseases. They cause structural problems within the cornea. Some of the most common are:
This affects the back layer of the epithelium, which separates it from the stroma. It grows irregularly (thick in some places, thin in others). That causes irregularities in your cornea that look like maps, dots, and small fingerprints.
It usually affects adults over 40. It’s usually painless, doesn’t affect vision, and gets better without treatment. But sometimes the epithelial layer can get worn down and expose the nerves that line the cornea. That causes severe pain, especially when one wakes up in the morning. It can also change the cornea’s normal curve and cause astigmatism, nearsightedness, or farsightedness.
As the cornea changes, vision may get blurry. In addition, some patients may experience:
- Moderate to severe pain
- Increased sensitivity to light
- Excessive tearing
- A feeling that something is in the eye
This inherited condition causes a slow breakdown of endothelial cells and the swelling of the cornea. This makes it harder to remove water from the stroma. The eye swells and vision gets worse. Haze and small blisters may appear on the surface.
Signs of the disease may appear in the 30s or 40s, but it takes about 20 years for it to affect vision. Women get it more often than men.
An early sign: Blurred vision on waking up that slowly clears during the day. As the disease worsens, swelling becomes more consistent and vision stays blurry.
This is abnormal protein fibers in the stroma. It can happen at any age, but early changes can be seen in childhood.
It gets its name from the clear overlapping lines of proteins. They can make the cornea cloudy and reduce vision. They could wear down the epithelial layer.
Prompt medical attention can prevent corneal blindness in most cases. People with corneal blindness can regain their vision by corneal grafting.
At first, glasses or soft contacts can solve the problem. As the disease goes on, the patient may need to wear rigid gas permeable lenses. For people with early keratoconus, a procedure called corneal crosslinking can be performed. During the procedure, the doctor instills riboflavin eyedrops and the eyes get exposure to small amounts of UV light. This procedure often prevents worsening of keratoconus and can prevent the need for corneal surgery.
A small number of people with keratoconus will need a cornea transplant. During this procedure, the doctor will replace the damaged cornea with a donated one. This operation is usually successful. But the patient will probably still need glasses or contacts to see clearly.
Treatments include an eye patch, a soft contact lens “bandage,” eyedrops, ointments, “tacking it down,” or removing the loose layer. This is a minor procedure which can be done in the Hospital.
- Drying the swollen cornea with a hair dryer (at arm’s length) two or three times a day
- Corneal transplant (full or partial)
- Prescription eyedrops
- Eye patches
- Corneal transplant
Symptoms may go away with treatment, but over time the patient may need a corneal transplant. Results of this surgery are usually good, but the condition can come back.